These pictures must have been terrifying. It must have seemed liked the United States of America was coming apart. Matthew Waxman : There was this stark contrast between the chaotic information bombardment about what was happening around Washington, around the country—some of it accurate, some of it inaccurate—and the calm and careful deliberation of a lot of the senior decision-makers. Nic Calio : The vivid memory I have was we were in this cocoon—receiving and sending all this information, at the same time not knowing where our families were.
It was probably midafternoon before we were able to try and contact our families. That was worrisome. There was an overriding uncertainty about what was going on, what would actually happen, and what would have to follow. Cheney—without question—he was in charge. He was in charge of the space and we would bring him information. Anything in the United States was considered friendly by definition.
They had no method to be able to reach down—or even be able to know that the D.
National Guard was there and available. There were no rules of engagement.
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Commander Anthony Barnes : I was running liaison between the ops guys who had Pentagon officials on the phone and the conference room [in the PEOC] where the principals were. The Pentagon thought there was another hijacked airplane, and they were asking for permission to shoot down an identified hijacked commercial aircraft.
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I asked the vice president that question and he answered it in the affirmative. I asked again to be sure. Without hesitation, in the affirmative, he said any confirmed hijacked airplane may be engaged and shot down. We may have to shoot down this aircraft that is coming toward Washington, D. We need presidential authority. Major Dan Caine , F pilot, D.
Air National Guard, Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland: I handed our wing commander the phone to talk to the high levels of government to get the rules of engagement. Dick Cheney : It had to be done. Matthew Waxman : That really grabs you by the collar, when you hear the vice president giving the order to shoot down an unidentified aircraft flying toward the national capital.
That stands out as one of the most frightening moments of the day, partly because it highlighted the sense of continuing danger. There was also the realization of the enormous dilemmas that faced decision-makers at that moment with very little time and imperfect information. Commander Anthony Barnes : I knew, without a doubt in my mind, that that was a historical precedent—that never before had we given permission to shoot down a commercial airliner. I got back on the phone—it was a general of some sort in the Pentagon—and on that secure line I was talking on, made sure that he understood that I had posed the question to the National Authority [the vice president] and the answer was in the affirmative.
We made sure that we did not stutter or stumble because the emotion at that point was very, very high. He clearly had been through crises before and did not appear to be in shock like many of us. That helped—that training kicked in that morning. Condoleezza Rice : There were times that day that it felt like an out-of-body experience. With the order given from Vice President Cheney, the military scrambled to find fighters it could bring into the fight—even if that meant launching them unarmed, on a kamikaze mission to crash their own fighters into hijacked airliners.
The scrambled fighter jets would never make contact with Flight 93—the passengers and crew aboard United Flight 93 passengers were planning, at the same time, to take the plane down themselves. Matthew Klimow : It was a very painful discussion for all of us. Air National Guard: This sounds counterintuitive, but when the magnitude of the situation hit me, I really lost all emotion.
It was really much more focused on, What are the things I need to do to enable us to protect our capital? What are the things I need to do to facilitate us getting airborne? Brigadier General David Wherley , commander, D. I told them to be careful. Marc Sasseville , F pilot, U. It would typically take about 20 minutes to start the jets, get the avionics systems going, go through all the preflight checks to make sure the systems were operating properly, program the computers in the aircraft.
We usually planned about half-an-hour to 40 minutes from the time you walked out the door to the time that you actually took off. The crew chief was still running under the tail so that my gear would come up—there are safety pins that are all in the airplane—and so they were pulling all those safety pins as I was taxiing to go do an immediate take-off.
They were not yet awake when we took off. Marc Sasseville : I was going into this moral or ethical justification of the needs of the many versus the needs of the few. If we did it right, this would be it. Air National Guard: Seeing the Pentagon was surreal. It was totally surreal to see this billowing black smoke. We were at about 3, feet. We never got above 3, feet, at least on that first sweep out. Marc Sasseville : There was all this smoke in my cockpit. A few minutes before 10 a.
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It was the first tip to Pennsylvania authorities that there was trouble in the skies overhead. This is an abridged transcript of their call. OK, yeah.
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Get somebody from the airport on the line. This is a hijacking in progress.
Alice Ann Hoglan , mother of Mark Bingham, passenger, United Flight The uniqueness of Flight 93 is that it was in the air longer than the other flights. What can I do? I love you. He never called back.
Lisa Jefferson : As that plane took a dive, I could hear the commotion in the background. I heard the flight attendant screaming. Jesus, help us! I told him I would, but I asked him if would he like me to connect him to her right then. She was expecting their third child in January, and he knew she was home alone. He gave me his home phone number. Lyzbeth Glick , wife of Jeremy Glick, passenger, United Flight Jeremy said there were three other guys as big as him, and they were going to jump on the hijacker with the bomb and try to take back the plane.
He asked if I thought that was a good idea. We debated a little bit. The original leaf has been reunited with the first and third leaf of this college paper. See Box 6, folder Typescript poem "Tis the ancientstrife I see. Typescript story "Joe Doakes.
Holograph notes for story "Joe Doakes. Holograph prose fragment "There's a dawn to every day. Holograph notes "This I do know.